The Driving Force of a Third Party
By Victorio Neves de Baers – November 5, 2012
On December 9, 2011, prosecutor Lozada received the report from anthropologist Roberto Parra Chinchilla containing his conclusions regarding Ciro’s fall:
The anthropological analysis of the circumstances surrounding the death claim that the pattern of injuries to the victim’s skull is consistent with “violent impact to the head, further associated with standard fractures to the facial bones in response to the fall being suddenly broken by the rock.”
Impact occurred on the right side of the head, which was necessarily subject to heavy pressure, thus leading to fractures in the face, neck (2nd cervical vertebra) and right arm.
The absence of injury to other parts of the body, like the chest and legs, eliminate the possibility of a plunge or free fall. Therefore, evidence points to an abrupt slide from a height of only approximately 4 meters (13 feet).
Victim’s weight: 78 kg (172 pounds)
Slide angle: 85°
Speed of the fall: 35 km/hour (22 mph)
On April 9, 2012, Mr. Parra presented his findings to the prosecutor and the parties’ attorneys. There he stated:
“There may have been outside forces that caused the fracture to Ciro Castillo’s 2nd cervical vertebra and damage to the right side of his skull after a fall from a height of fewer than four meters. (13 feet)”
At the presentation, the question was raised as to the possibility that Ciro had been pushed, to which Mr. Parra responded affirmatively, stressing however that evidence was inconclusive as to whether he had been physically pushed or it had been a massive slip.
After the presentation, both Dr. Ciro and his attorney Mr. Medina used the term “outside force” as a synonym for “push,” which is incorrect since Mr. Parra had used the term “outside forces” to explain the origin of the fractures after the fall and not to explain the origin of the fall.
The metamorphosis of Lozada’s report
Dr. Lozada has equivocal adopted the use of the term and has converted it, beyond the shadow of doubt, to “driving force from a third party.” In other words, the plural “forces” has now become “force” so as to be able to attribute such to a single “third party.”
She has also added the word “driving,” which does not exist in Parra’s explanation since his report states, “violent impact to the head, further associated with standard fractures to the facial bones in response to the fall being suddenly broken by the rock.” The rock does not serve as a “driving” force, rather as “external forces” in contradiction to a driving force displacing Ciro’s body.
Note the difference:
Parra: fall -> outside forces -> fractures
Dr. Ciro and attorney: outside force -> fall
Dr. Lozada: driving force from a third party -> fall
Ultimately we see a garbling of terms with a bias toward putting words in Mr. Parra’s mouth.